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Vasectomy Miami and Fort Lauderdale

Low Cost Minimally Invasive No-Scalpel Vasectomy in Miami and Fort Lauderdale

Board certified urologist David Robbins, MD is Miami and Fort Lauderdale's top doctor performing low cost minimally invasive No-Scalpel Vasectomy. At Urological Consultants of Florida, Dr. Robbins has performed countless vasectomy procedures. Dr. Robbins goal is to perform a safe and effective vasectomy procedure directly from our state of the art Biscayne Boulevard North Miami location with minimal impact on patients' daily lives. When it comes to a successful and complication free office based vasectomy, experience and technique are paramount. If you are considering a vasectomy, make an appointment with Dr. Robbins to explore your options and discuss whether you would benefit from a minimally invasive, No-Scalpel Vasectomy.

No-Scapel-Vasectomy-Dr-Robbins-miami
  • Is a vasectomy an appropriate choice for you?
  • How is a vasectomy performed?
  • Myths about a vasectomy procedure
  • What are the real risks associated with a vasectomy?
  • How to prepare for your vasectomy
  • Risk of pregnancy after vasectomy
  • What to expect after your vasectomy
  • Follow up instructions
  • Testimonials
  • History of the Vasectomy Procedure
  • Why choose Dr. Robbins for your vasectomy in Miami?
  • Is a vasectomy covered by insurance?
  • Vasectomy Techniques
  • Vasectomy Forms

What is a vasectomy?

A vasectomy is a minor surgical procedure performed in the office with the goal of achieving permanent sterility by preventing sperm from exiting the penis during ejaculation. A vasectomy procedure is minimally invasive and highly effective with success rates reportedly greater than 99%. A vasectomy procedure is simple to perform and low risk as compared to a tubal ligation in females and for that reason it is the most popular means of birth control when the goal is to achieve permanent sterility.

Is a vasectomy an appropriate choice for you?

What-is-a-vasectomy-ft-lauderdale

Although a vasectomy procedure is an excellent way to achieve permanent sterility, the decision to undergo a vasectomy procedure should not be taken lightly. A vasectomy procedure is performed for men that have made the decision that they no longer want to father children under any circumstances. Although a vasectomy reversal procedure is possible, this is a complex surgical procedure performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. It is typically not covered by insurance and success rates can vary.

If you do choose to have a vasectomy, rest assured that Dr. Robbins has extensive experience performing vasectomy procedures. Dr. Robbins is at your service to provide you with a hassle-free vasectomy procedure performed by a recognized expert in minimally invasive vasectomy. Patients from Miami Dade, Broward including Fort Lauderdale and our surrounding neighborhood including the Caribbean, Central and South America have come to Urological Consultants of Florida to have a No-Scalpel Vasectomy with Dr. Robbins.

Dr. Robbins performs 200 to 300 vasectomy procedures every year in his North Miami office.  The whole procedure takes approximately 15 minutes to perform and patients typically spend no more than 45 minutes in the office from the time they arrive until they are ready to go home.  Dr. Robbins give all of his patients a Valium to take 1 hour prior to the procedure to diminish any anxiety about the vasectomy.  Most patients do choose to take the Valium although it is optional.  All patients take an oral dose of antibiotics 1 hour prior to the procedure.  Vasectomy procedures are performed on Thursday and Friday afternoons giving most patients with traditional jobs that do not work the weekend the opportunity to take it easy for a few days prior to returning to work on a Monday. 

How is a vasectomy performed?

Before-and-after-a-vasectomy-miami

Vasectomy works by preventing sperm from reaching your penis during ejaculation.

Sperm is made inside of your testicles. After leaving the testicles, the sperm travels through an organ called the epididymis where it can mature. At the time of ejaculation, sperm travels out of the epididymis though a long tube called the vas deferens into the urethra where it is then mixed with fluid from the prostate and semenal vesicles to create semen. The semen is then propelled out of the urethra via rhythmic contractions of the muscles around the penis and perineum during orgasm.

To perform a vasectomy procedure Dr. Robbins will use lidocaine to numb the skin. Next, the vas deferens are identified manually and isolated using the standard three finger technique. Subsequently the skin is opened using a no-scalpel technique. The vas deferens is then isolated, divided, cauterized and suture ligated. The tiny skin defect is approximated with skin glue or a small suture. The total time to perform a vasectomy procedure is approximately 15 minutes.

Myths about a vasectomy procedure

Many men are concerned about a vasectomy procedure because they have heard from a friend or read on the internet that it may cause erectile dysfunction or that they will not ejaculate after the procedure. A vasectomy procedure certainly does not cause damage to the nerves that initiate erections or cause injury to the erectile bodies. Erectile dysfunction is simply not a known complication of vasectomy. Also, a vasectomy procedure does not lead to decreased ejaculatory volume. Only a minute portion of the volume of semen in the ejaculate is contributed to by sperm from the testicles. Greater that 99% of the semen volume is from the semenal vesicles and prostate and the path for these fluids is not altered by a vasectomy. The volume, color and consistency of semen is not altered by a vasectomy procedure.

Additionally, some patients report that they have heard that a vasectomy procedure may increase their risk for developing prostate cancer. There is no literature making this connection with statistically significant data and recent studies addressing this concern have shown no connection with vasectomy procedure and prostate cancer.

Finally, it is a common misconception that a vasectomy procedure can affect a man's libido or ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculate normally. These functions are certainly not altered by a vasectomy procedure.

What are the real risks associated with a vasectomy?

A vasectomy procedure is considered a safe procedure with few risks especially when performed by urologists with expertise and experience with the procedure such as Dr. Robbins.

Occasionally minor complications may occur and may include:

  • Pain
  • Bleeding
  • Bruising
  • Swelling

Very infrequently a post vasectomy syndrome may occur which is associated with prolonged scrotal discomfort. Typically, this can be relieved with anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen and the symptoms should resolve with time.

In 2012, the American Urological Association released a set of official guidelines for a vasectomy procedure. You can download and print out these guidelines below. This publication highlights the risks and benefits of the vasectomy procedure similar to that which is highlighted above. It should be noted that the typical post vasectomy course is unremarkable. Given that most vasectomy patients are young professionals in Miami and Fort Lauderdale, we typically perform vasectomy procedures on Friday afternoons to allow patients the weekend to relax and recover so that they can be back to work on Monday morning.

Risk of pregnancy after a vasectomy

According to the American Urological Association 2012 Guidelines, the risk of pregnancy after a vasectomy procedure is less than 1 in 2000 with demonstration of no sperm on a post vasectomy semen analysis. It is very important that patients comply with the request to obtain a semen analysis to confirm lack of sperm approximately 10-12 weeks after the vasectomy. For men whose circumstances may change after a vasectomy procedure or who change their mind, the options for fertility after vasectomy include vasectomy reversal surgery, sperm retrieval combined with in vitro fertilization, or the use of sperm from cryopreservation saved prior to the initial vasectomy procedure. However, although these methods can be employed post vasectomy, they are certainly expensive and not a guarantee of a success in achieving pregnancy.

How to prepare for your vasectomy

Vasectomy-procedure-miami

A vasectomy procedure is performed in our state of the art Biscayne Boulevard office in North Miami under local anesthesia. The vasectomy procedure takes about 15 minutes to perform and is tolerated very well by our patients. To add to patient comfort during a vasectomy procedure, we prescribe Valium to be taken 1 hour prior to the procedure. Additionally, we recommend to patients that they bring an iphone or personal music player with earphones to make their vasectomy experience more relaxing. With the combination of a Valium and music, it is not uncommon for patients to fall asleep during the vasectomy procedure.

Before your vasectomy:

  • Clean and shave your scrotal area.
  • Avoid taking anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen or Aspirin.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothes to your vasectomy appointment.
  • Bring someone to drive you home after the vasectomy.

What to expect after your vasectomy

After a vasectomy, it is important to avoid strenuous activities such as heavy lifting, exercise or sexual activity for 3-5 days. It is typical to have mild discomfort that can be relieve with Tylenol or ibuprofen.

Ice should be applied to the area indirectly for 20 minutes every few hours while awake for the first day to reduce swelling and discomfort.

A topical antibacterial such as Bacitracin or Neosporin should be applied to the wounds 2-3 times per day for several days. It is important to avoid submerging the wound in water such a in a bath or swimming pool. These activities can allow bacteria to enter the wound and lead to infection. It is OK to take a shower even the day of the procedure, but the area should not be washed vigorously or scrubbed with a brush.

Since you will be taking Valium, it is important that someone is there during the procedure and available to drive you home. Immediately following vasectomy, there is a slight risk of bleeding into your scrotum. Contact your doctor if you experience:

  • Significant swelling in your scrotum.
  • Intense pain.
  • Fever.
  • Redness in the scrotum.
  • Discharge from the wound.

Follow-up Instructions

A vasectomy procedure is not immediately effective. There are still sperm that are left in the vas deferens beyond the point where the tube is divided. These sperm are viable and capable of causing an unplanned pregnancy. Effective birth control should be resumed after the vasectomy procedure until a negative semen analysis is documented and confirmed by Miami urologist David Robbins, MD.

A semen analysis should be performed 10-12 weeks after the procedure and it is important to have at least 12 ejaculations prior to the analysis to clear the tubes of any remaining sperm. The semen analysis will be performed at your local laboratory. You do not have to make a follow up appointment to review the results. Dr. Robbins will call you to review the result on the phone.

For the first day or two after vasectomy you may experience mild discomfort in your scrotum or abdomen. Over-the-counter medications such as Tylenol or ibuprofen should help. The doctor may also send you home with narcotic pain medication.

Most men in Dr. Robbins' practice who opt for a vasectomy are busy with their family and careers and are concerned about time off from work after the procedure. To minimize downtime from work, vasectomy procedures are typically performed by Dr. Robbins on Thursday and Friday afternoons. This allows the clear majority of patients to take it easy over the weekend and return to work on Monday without any problems. We are certainly willing to work with men who do not have traditional work schedules to find an alternative day for a vasectomy procedure.

Testimonials

"I am 36 years old and I have 3 children. When my wife brought up the idea of having a vasectomy I was extremely hesitant. I found Dr. Robbins on the internet and made an appointment. Even though he made me feel comfortable about proceeding with a vasectomy I was still anxious. In the end I went through with the procedure and it was truthfully not bad at all. I took a Valium prescribed by Dr. Robbins so I was pretty relaxed. The vasectomy really didn't hurt at all and it was over in probably 15 minutes. My wife took me home and I relaxed over the weekend. It was really not a big deal at all. I have recommended two of my friends to Dr. Robbins."

Matt G.

"Dr Robbins did my vasectomy after a friend recommended him. Just as my friend said, it was not that bad. It did not hurt at all. I had the vasectomy and Friday and I was at work on Monday no problem. Two months later I did my semen test and Dr Robbins said I was good to go. If you need a vasectomy, definitely go to Dr. Robbins. He did a great job and he is a good dude. "

Raul H.

My wife is pregnant now with our fourth child. I found doctor Robbins on the internet and met him at his office to talk about getting my vasectomy. He made me feel confident about getting a vasectomy. It was not so bad. I really didn't feel alot of pain. I am happy i went to doctor Robbins for my vasectomy

Jeremy B.

As much as you can for an "operation", I really enjoyed my experience with Dr. Robbins!! He explained everything and delivered on it. Contrary to what my regular urologist said (have kidney stones), it was a quick and almost pain free operation for me. I'm sure it could be different for others but even the post vasectomy pain was minimal but that may have something to do with me icing it aggressively from the start even though I didn't have pain at the time. The toughest part was probably getting rid of all the pubic hair since I elected to pluck instead of shaving.

Dean T.

My experience at Urological Consultants of Florida was a pleasant one. From the friendly staff when you arrive, to meeting Dr. Robbins himself I felt very comfortable. He explained the vasectomy procedure in a thorough way which made the final decision to go through with the operation easier than I expected. The Operation itself was very quick and almost painless. We talked threw the vasectomy and it was over before I knew it. The recovery was a little painful for me cause my terrible two-year-old would not allow me to get my needed rest. It has been almost two weeks since the operation and things are completely back to normal and I feel great. I would recommend Dr. Robbins to anyone that needs this procedure done.

G Wh.

If you are a patient that has already had a vasectomy procedure with Dr. Robbins and you would like to leave a testimonial about your vasectomy experience, please search the term "Vasectomy Miami" on Google, click on Dr. Robbins Google Local page entitled "Vasectomy Miami" and leave a review.

History of the Vasectomy Procedure

History-of-vasectomy-procedure

According to the World Health Organization, sterilization for both males and females is the most common method employed to achieve permanent birth control. It is estimated that sterilization techniques including vasectomy have been performed on over 200 million people worldwide. Although globally, only 5% of men have had a vasectomy procedure performed, in the United States the rate is much higher estimated at one in six men over the age of 35.

The first reported vasectomy was performed on a dog in 1823. Vasectomy was not performed on humans until the 1900s when it was employed throughout Europe during a campaign of eugenic sterilization for socially undesirable members of society and certain ethnic groups. Additionally, in places like London, Cuba and the United States vasectomy procedures were performed on the mentally ill and criminally insane as a means of forced sterility.

It wasn’t until after World War II that vasectomy began to be used as a form of elective birth control in the way it is understood today. In the 1970’s in India, the government offered cash incentives to citizens electing to undergo vasectomy with the goal of population control. Vasectomy grew in popularity during the last few decades in the 20th century and into the 21st century as vasectomy services became more widely available. Recently vasectomy is becoming more popular than tubal ligation especially with the advent of the minimally invasive and no-scalpel office based technique.

Why Choose Dr. Robbins for your vasectomy in Miami and Fort Lauderdale?

Although there many urologists in Miami and Fort Lauderdale who perform vasectomy procedures, few urologists in Miami and Fort Lauderdale perform vasectomy procedures on a regular basis as does Dr. Robbins. Dr. Robbins typically performs three to six vasectomy procedures every week at our state of the art Biscayne Boulevard Miami location. Last year Dr. Robbins performed nearly 300 vasectomy procedures. Dr. Robbins is dedicated to performing low cost and minimally invasive vasectomy procedures. Since starting practice in Miami in 2009, Dr. Robbins has rapidly gained a reputation for providing high quality vasectomy services to patients in the Miami region and Fort Lauderdale. Make an appointment now and join countless other satisfied men who have chosen Dr. Robbins to perform their vasectomy.  If you live outside of the Miami or Fort Lauderdale area and would like to have a vasectomy with Dr. Robbins, please Contact Us and provide your information so we can get in touch with you and make arrangements for your vasectomy.  Alternatively, please feel free to phone us directly at 305-672-4222 to make an appointment or ask a question.  

Is a Vasectomy Procedure in Miami Covered by Insurance?

Patients frequently ask whether a vasectomy in Miami is covered by insurance. Typically a vasectomy is a covered procedure. Most insurance companies would prefer to cover a vasectomy procedure than to pay for an inadvertent pregnancy and subsequent delivery which could be substantially costlier. However, all plans do vary and patients who choose to have a vasectomy with Dr. Robbins may have copays or deductibles associated with their plan. We do encourage all our patients to check with their individual insurance plan before proceeding with a vasectomy procedure in our North Miami location. Our staff would be happy to assist you to contact your insurance plan to determine your coverage benefits and copay/deductible for a vasectomy procedure.

Vasectomy Techniques

Dr. Robbins uses a no scalpel technique to perform a vasectomy. Patients will take a valium and an antibiotic one hour prior to the procedure. With the patient resting comfortably in a reclined position, Dr. Robbins will anesthetize the area with local anesthetic. Subsequently, a ring clamp is used to isolate the vas deferens through the scrotal skin. A vasectomy specific clamp is then used to gently spread the skin over the vas deferens. The vas is then isolated, clamped twice, divided, cauterized, tied and gently replaced into the scrotum. The entire vasectomy procedure typically takes under 15 minutes.

Traditionally, the approach to vasectomy involves numbing the scrotal skin with a local anesthetic such as lidocaine and subsequently using a scalpel to make two separate small incisions to allow access to the vas deferens. The vas deferens are then divided, cauterized and then one or both ends are ligated with a suture or clip. Various additional treatment options exist that help to improve healing, decrease discomfort or increase the effectiveness of the vasectomy procedure.

No Needle vasectomy involves using an air jet injector to apply local anesthesia instead of a traditional small bore needle. Using this method air pressure is used to force the local anesthesia through the scrotal skin without the need for a needle.

No-Scalpel Vasectomy is a technique in which a sharp tipped hemostat is used to spread the skin over the vas deferens as opposed to using a scalpel. This results in a smaller incision which can result in faster healing, decreased risk of hematoma and bleeding.

Fascial interposition vasectomy involves placing a tissue barrier between the two cut ends of the vas deferens to prevent recanalization thereby increasing the overall success rate of the vasectomy. In this method typically the facial sheath surrounding the testicular side of the vas deferens is sutured over the cut and ligated end.

Open ended vasectomy is a technique in which the testicular end of the vas is left open to allow sperm from the testicle to flow freely into the scrotum. This method may decrease testicular pain and epididymitis resulting from back pressure of sperm from the ligated testicular end of the vas deferens.

Vas irrigation is a technique employed during a vasectomy procedure in which sterile water is injected into the distal end of the vas deferens at the end of a vasectomy with the goal of providing earlier clearance of sperm from the ejaculate. Although some studies have shown positive results with this vasectomy technique, it is not commonly used by urologists.

How effective is a vasectomy as a birth control technique?

Following a vasectomy, early failure rates are most likely related to unprotected intercourse too soon after the vasectomy procedure when the sperm have not been cleared from the vas deferens. Typically, a semen analysis performed 3 months following the vasectomy procedure confirming no sperm in the ejaculate is sufficient to indicate to the patient that he is clear to have unprotected intercourse.

Late failures after vasectomy can theoretically be attributed to recanalization of the vas deferens. Vas recanalization rates are quoted at 1 in 1000 vasectomy procedures according to the literature. Miami urologist David Robbins, MD uses a combination of techniques including cautery, suture ligature and fascial interposition to help mitigate the risk of vas recanalization following a vasectomy procedure.

How can pregnancy occur after a vasectomy?

Pregnancy can occur after a vasectomy due to three primary reasons:

  1. Unprotected intercourse following a vasectomy before a man's sperm count is confirmed to be zero with a semen analysis
  2. Spontaneous reversal of the vasectomy due to recanalization of the two severed ends of the vas
  3. Surgical error

Sperm not cleared from the ejaculation (sperm count is not zero)

Following a successful vasectomy procedure, live sperm can be present beyond the point of division of the vas and can remain viable for several months. This means that a man is still potent and capable of impregnating a woman. Contraception still needs to be used following a vasectomy until the sperm count is determined to be zero.

At Urological Consultants of Florida, David Robbins, MD advises patients to obtain a semen analysis 3 months after a vasectomy procedure. Men are also encouraged to have between 15 and 20 ejaculations during this time to clear any residual sperm from the vasa. However, despite the recommendation to complete a semen analysis prior to engaging in unprotected intercourse, up to 50% of men do not get a semen analysis after a vasectomy procedure or follow up with their urologist.

Recanalization or spontaneous reversal of a vasectomy

Recanalization is the process by which two severed ends of the vas deferens rejoin through microscopic channels that can rejoin during the process of scarring and healing. Recanalization can occur early on after the vasectomy procedure and is thought to occur less than 1% of the time. Even more rarely, recanalization can occur late after a vasectomy when a man already has achieved a negative semen analysis and has been given the go ahead to proceed with unprotected intercourse by his urologist.

Surgical error

Surgical error is when the vasectomy fails because the surgeon fails to divide both vas separately. Occasionally the surgeon may divide the same side twice by pulling the vas from one side to the other accidentally when performing a bilateral vasectomy. Dr. Robbins prevents this scenario by giving a gentle tug on the testicular side of the vas to watch the left and right vas rise separately during the vasectomy procedure to confirm that both vas deferens have been divided.

Can a vasectomy cause prostate cancer?

The controversy that a vasectomy can cause prostate cancer has been in and out of the literature in urology for the past 20 years. While some initial investigations drew a connection between prostate cancer and a vasectomy procedure an equal number of studies showed no clear correlation.

In 1993, a prospective study out of Harvard Medical School looking at over 50,000 men documented 300 new cases of prostate cancer and seemed to indicate a slight increased risk of prostate cancer development in post vasectomy men. However, a prospective study of 75,000 men in 1994 out of Denmark found no increased risk in the post vasectomy population.

A 2002 study published in JAMA looking at 900 men in New Zealand after vasectomy compared to 1200 men in the general population. Over a 12 year period, they found no increased risk. It should be further noted that New Zealand is recognized for meticulous nationalized cancer data collection and has the highest rate of vasectomy in the world.

The most recent study published in Prostate Cancer in 2002 looked at 22 separate studies done of the past 20 years to see if there was any connection between vasectomy and prostate cancer development. The conclusion of their evaluation demonstrated no clear connection between vasectomy and prostate cancer and it was postulated that the prior suspected connection was likely secondary to "detection bias" given that men who undergo vasectomy are more responsible with their health and are more likely to have medical follow up and receive a prostate cancer diagnosis as compared to more non-compliant individuals.

In conclusion, research does not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between men who undergo a vasectomy procedure and an increased risk for prostate cancer. Therefore, there is no need to have any reservation regarding prostate cancer when considering a vasectomy procedure.

Cryopreservation of Sperm Prior to Vasectomy

Some men may choose to cryopreserve their sperm prior to vasectomy at a sperm bank. Although sperm cryopreservation may provide a safety net in case you change your mind about having children, it is possible that the sperm may not survive the freeze and thaw process and may not be viable for achieving pregnancy at a later date. If you do choose to cryopreserve your sperm, please be sure to find a reputable company to ensure that your sperm will be available if you should need them. If you are very concerned about your sperm being available after a vasectomy, perhaps you should reconsider your choice about having a vasectomy procedure until a later date when you are sure you do not want any more children.

Urological Consultants of Florida Vasectomy Forms

Miami urologist Dr. David Robbins has provided a pdf copy for download of the vasectomy consent form that you signed at the North Miami Office. You can additionally download the pre and  post vasectomy instruction forms below as well as additional information about vasectomy from the Americal Urological Association:

American Urological Association 2012 Vasectomy Guidelines Patient Information

Vasectomy consent

Vasectomy Preparation Instructions

Vasectomy Discharge Instructions

DISCHARGE INSTRUCTIONS FOLLOWING VASECTOMY

You will need to have someone take you home following the surgery WHEN YOU GET HOME:

  1. Ice your scrotum 20 minutes every two hours when awake for 24 hours. This will reduce the chance of scrotal swelling.
  2. Wear cotton, JOCKEY undershorts for increase support and comfort.
  3. Avoid heavy lifting or vigorous exercise for seven (7) days after surgery.
  4. You can shower the day after surgery. Avoid rubbing the scrotum when drying
  5. Sexual activity can begin one week after your vasectomy when scrotal swelling and tenderness subside
  6. CONTRACEPTIVE PRECAUTIONS ARE ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY UNTIL THE SEMEN
  7. Eight to Twelve (10-12) weeks after your vasectomy, you need to do a Semen Analysis.
  8. Please call our office immediately if you have any post op complications including:
    1. Infection
    2. Bleeding
    3. Increasing pain
    4. Swelling
    5. Temperature of 101
  9. If you have any questions, please call the office at (305) 672-4222
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Vasectomy Miami

Dr. Robbins has treated countless patients in Miami, Fort Lauderdale and the surrounding region searching for an experienced urologist performing minimally invasive and low cost vasectomy procedures. There are few urologists with the experience and dedication to the art of vasectomy like Dr. Robbins. Please call our North Miami office at 305-672-4222 to make an appointment for a vasectomy procedure.

Dr Robbins North Miami office serves patients seeking vasectomy in all Miami-Dade and Broward cities including:

Aventura, Bal Harbour, Bay Harbour Islands, Biscayne Park, Coral Gables, Cutler Bay, Doral, El Portal, Florida City, Golden Beach, hialeah, Hialeah Gardens, Homestead, Indian Creek, Key Biscayne, Medley, Miami, Miami Beach, Miami Gardens, Miami Lakes, Miami Shores, Miami Springs, North Bay Villiage, North Miami, North Miami Beach, Opa-locka, Palmetto Bay, Pinecrest, South Miami, Sunny Isles Beach, Surfside, Sweetwater, Virginia Gardens, West Miami, Coconut Creek, Coral Springs, Deerfield Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood, Miramar, Pembroke Pines, Plantation, Pompano Beach, Sunrise, Weston, Cooper City, Dania Beach, Hallandale Beach, Lauderdale Lakes, Lauderhill, Lighthouse Point, Margate, North Lauderdale, Oakland Park, Parkland, Tamarac, West Park and Wilton Manors.